Empirical Comparison of Distributed Source Localization Methods for Single-Trial Detection of Movement Preparation
Editors: Duke University Mikhail Lebedev
In Frontiers in Neuroscience, Frontiers, volume 12, pages 1-15, Sep/2018.
The development of technologies for the treatment of movement disorders, like stroke, is still of particular interest in brain-computer interface (BCI) research. In this context, source localization methods (SLMs), that reconstruct the cerebral origin of brain activity measured outside the head, e.g., via electroencephalography (EEG), can add a valuable insight into the current state and progress of the treatment. However, in BCIs SLMs were often solely considered as advanced signal processing methods that are compared against other methods based on the classification performance alone. Though, this approach does not guarantee physiological meaningful results. We present an empirical comparison of three established distributed SLMs with the aim to use one for single-trial movement prediction. The SLMs wMNE, sLORETA, and dSPM were applied on data acquired from eight subjects performing voluntary arm movements. Besides the classification performance as quality measure, a distance metric was used to asses the physiological plausibility of the methods. For the distance metric, which is usually measured to the source position of maximum activity, we further propose a variant based on clusters that is better suited for the single-trial case in which several sources are likely and the actual maximum is unknown. The two metrics showed different results. The classification performance revealed no significant differences across subjects, indicating that all three methods are equally well-suited for single-trial movement prediction. On the other hand, we obtained significant differences in the distance measure, favoring wMNE even after correcting the distance with the number of reconstructed clusters. Further, distance results were inconsistent with the traditional method using the maximum, indicating that for wMNE the point of maximum source activity often did not coincide with the nearest activation cluster. In summary, the presented comparison might help users to select an appropriate SLM and to understand the implications of the selection. The proposed methodology pays attention to the particular properties of distributed SLMs and can serve as a framework for further comparisons.
source imaging, inverse problem, MRCP, brain-computer interface, EEG, movement detection